Child developmental Milestones Preschoolers Four Years

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Developmental Milestones - Preschoolers Four Years

GROWTH AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • gains approximately 4 to 5 pounds per year; weighs an average of 32 to 40 pounds
  • grows 2 to 2.5 inches in height per year; is approximately 40 to 45 inches tall
  • heart rate (pulse) averages 90-110 beats per minute
  • respiratory rate ranges from 20-30 varying with activity and emotional level
  • blood pressure remains at 84/60
  • requires approximately 1700 calories daily
  • hearing acuity can be assessed by child’s correct usage of sounds and language
  • visual acuity is 20/30 as measured on the Snellen E chart
  • grow into slimmer, straighter children
  • all primary teeth have come through
  • height and weight should grow together
  • arms, trunk and legs lengthen
  • legs grow faster than the rest of the body
  • bones become denser
  • well controlled muscles help him energetically climb, jump, hop, skip and ride a tricycle
  • talks incessantly

MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

  • walks on a straight line
  • hops on one foot
  • pedals and steers a tricycle or wheeled toy with confidence and skill; turns corners, avoids obstacles
  • climbs ladder, steps, trees, playground equipment
  • jumps over obstacles five or six inches high or from a step; lands with both feet together
  • runs, starts, stops and moves around obstacles with ease
  • reproduces some shapes and letters
  • holds a crayon or marker using a tripod grasp
  • points and draws with deliberateness
  • crosses legs when sitting on the floor
  • walks with swinging steps
  • can stand on one foor
  • love jumping
  • beginning to draw square
  • hop with both feet
  • pedals a tricycle
  • throws a ball underhanded
  • cuts paper
  • works a puzzle of several pieces
  • draws simple shapes
  • sits on a chair with knees crossed
  • can climb trees and ladders
  • hops on favored foot and balances upon it for 3-5 seconds
  • can make sharp turns on a tricycle

PERCEPTUAL-COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • stacks 5 graduated cubes from largest to smallest; builds a pyramid of 6 blocks
  • places lower and upper case letters in form board
  • near the end of this year;; the child may: name about 75% of uppercase letters and write several; print own name; recognize some printed words (especially those which have a special meaning attached to them)
  • some children are beginning to read very simple books, such as alphabet books, with only few words per page and many pictures
  • likes stories about how things grow and how things operate
  • rote counts to 20 or more
  • powers of thought developing rapidly
  • learn best by doing
  • powers of recognition are developed
  • imagine and fantasize in a controlled way
  • begins to develop the ability to deal with abstraction
  • begins to distinguish between appearance and reality
  • begins to understand false beliefs
  • perceives another person’s point of view
  • develops increased memory and attention span and can recall objects and events
  • develops counting, math, and problem solving skills
  • names and matches colors
  • can thread beads, but still cannot thread a needle
  • arranges six cubes to build three steps
  • grasps pencil maturely; copies letters H, O, T, V
  • draws a man showing head, legs plus arms and trunk

SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

  • uses the prepositions “on”, “in”, and “under”
  • answers “whose?” “who?” “why?” and “how many?”
  • speech is 95% intelligible
  • refers to activities, events, objects and people that are not currently present
  • states first and last name, gender, siblings’ names, and sometimes the telephone number
  • answers appropriately when asked what to do if tired, cold, or hungry
  • recited and sings simple songs and rhymes
  • language develops alongside their powers of thought
  • can understand more words than they can say
  • gaining an increasing precision in the use of words
  • language becomes more difficult
  • more language they have, the faster thinking will progress
  • acquires vocabulary rapidly
  • begins to use complex sentences, indicating increased understanding of grammar and structure of language
  • uses private speech more
  • understands and shows interest in printed and handwritten words; tries to read and write
  • can talk intelligibly, using correct grammar and few childish mispronunciations
  • asks what different words mean
  • counts to 20 by rote, counts actual objects to 5
  • accurately says or sings a few nursery rhymes

PERSONAL-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

  • outgoing; friendly; overly enthusiastic at times
  • moods change rapidly and unpredictably; laughing one minute, crying the next; may throw tantrum over minor frustrations; sulk over being left out
  • imaginary playmates or companions are common; holds conversations and shares strong emotions with this invisible friend
  • cooperates with others; participates in group activities
  • shows pride in accomplishments; seeks frequent adult approval
  • often selfish; not always able to take turns or to understand taking turns under some conditions
  • tattles on other children
  • enjoys role-playing and make-believe activities
  • name calling and taunting are ways of excluding other children
  • establishes close friendships with playmates; beginning to have a “best friend”
  • children describe themselves almost entirely in physical terms
  • able to differentiate between themselves and other people
  • cannot easily distinguish their own thoughts and feelings from other people’s
  • plays assists children in understanding the point of view and feelings of other children and provides opportunities for pro-social behaviors
  • form first friendships

DEVELOPMENTAL ALERTS

Check with a health care provider or early childhood specialist, if by the fifth birthday, the child does not:

  • hop on one foot
  • state own name in full
  • have good control of posture and movement
  • catch a large bounced ball
  • recognize simple shapes: circles, square, triangle

The information provided should be used as a general guideline and for general information. Children are unique individuals. No two children grow and develop at the same rate. If you have any questions concerning your child's development, contact your pediatrician.

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