Child developmental Milestones Preschoolers Six Years

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Developmental Milestones - Preschoolers Six Years

GROWTH AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • growth occurs slowly, but steadily
  • height increases 2-3 inches each year, girls are an average of 42-46 inches tall, boys , 44-47 inches
  • weight increases 5-7 pounds a year: girls weigh approximately 38-47 pounds, boys, 42-49 pounds
  • heart rate (80 beats per minute) and respiratory rates (18-28 breaths per minute) are similar to those of adults; rates vary with activity
  • loses “baby” (deciduous) teeth; permanent (secondary) teeth erupt, beginning with the two upper front teeth; girls tend to lose teeth at an earlier age than boys
  • visual acuity should be 20/20; children testing 20/40 or less should have a professional evaluation
  • farsightedness is not common; often due to immature development (shape) of the eye ball
  • requires approximately 1600-1700 calories per day
  • grow into slimmer, straighter children
  • arms, trunk and legs lengthen
  • legs grow faster than the rest of body
  • bones become denser

MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

  • gain greater control over large and fine motor movement; movements are more precise and deliberate, though some clumsiness persists
  • enjoys vigorous physical activity: running, jumping, climbing, and throwing
  • moves constantly even when trying to sit still
  • enjoys art projects: likes to paint, model with clay, “make things”, draw and color, work with wood
  • write numbers and letters with varying degrees of precision and interest; some children continue to reverse or confuse certain letters: b/d, p/g, g/q, t/f
  • ties own shoes
  • enjoys climbing and dancing
  • can stand on one foot
  • run on their toes
  • love jumping
  • can draw triangles and squares
  • bounces and catches a ball
  • runs in even strides
  • ascends and descends stairs smoothly and with a foot-alternating pattern
  • jumps and hops
  • pours liquids from various containers
  • dresses self fairly well
  • prints letters and numbers

PERCEPTUAL-COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • span of attention increases; works at tasks for longer periods of time, though concentrated effort is not always consistent
  • recognizes seasons and major holidays and the activities associated with each
  • enjoys the challenge of puzzles, counting and sorting activities, pencil and paper mazes, and games that involve matching letters and words with pictures
  • recognizes some words by sight; attempt to sound out printed words (some children may be reading well by this time)
  • can hold up and correctly name right and left hands
  • powers of thought developing rapidly
  • learn best by doing
  • becoming flexible in his thinking
  • powers of recognition are developed
  • begins to develop the ability to deal with abstraction
  • begins to distinguish between appearance and reality
  • begins to understand false beliefs
  • perceives another person’s point of view
  • develops increased memory and attention span and can recall objects and events

SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

  • loves to talk, often nonstop; may be described as a chatterbox
  • able to carry on adult-like conversations; asks many questions
  • learns as many as 5 to 10 new words each day; vocabulary consists of 10,000 to 14,000 words
  • imitates slang and profanity; finds “bathroom talk” extremely funny
  • enjoys being read to and making up stories
  • delights in telling jokes and riddles; often, the humor is far form subtle
  • language develops alongside their powers of thought
  • can understand more words than they can say
  • gaining an increasing precision in the use of words
  • language becomes more difficult
  • more language they have, the faster thinking will progress
  • acquires vocabulary rapidly
  • begins to use complex sentences, indicating increased understanding of grammar and structure of language
  • uses private speech more
  • understands and shows interest in printed and handwritten words; tries to read and write

PERSONAL-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

  • experiences sudden mood swings: may be “best of friends” one minute, “worst of enemies” the next; loving one day, uncooperative and irritable the next; is especially unpredictable toward mother or principal caregiver
  • makes friends easily, but not always good at keeping them
  • anxious to please; needs and seeks adult approval, reassurance, and praise; may complain excessively about minor hurts to gain more attention
  • continues to be self-centered (egocentric); still sees events almost entirely from own perspective: views everything and everyone as there for child’s own benefit
  • may be increasingly fearful of thunderstorms, the dark, unidentified noises, dogs and other animals
  • start to describe how he feels
  • become increasingly aware that another person’s feelings may be different form their own
  • able to differentiate between themselves and other people

DEVELOPMENTAL ALERTS

Check with a health care provider or early childhood specialist, if by the seventh birthday, the child does not:

  • show signs of ongoing growth: increasing height and weight; continuing motor development, such as running, jumping, balancing
  • show some interest in reading and trying to reproduce some letters, especially own name
  • begin to develop alternatives to excessive use of inappropriate behaviors in order to get own way

The information provided should be used as a general guideline and for general information. Children are unique individuals. No two children grow and develop at the same rate. If you have any questions concerning your child's development, contact your pediatrician.

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