Child developmental Milestones Infants / Toddlers One to two Years

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Developmental Milestones - Infants / Toddlers One to two Years

GROWTH AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • rate of growth is slower
  • height increases approximately 2 to 4 inches per year to an average height of 32-35 inches
  • weight gain is approximately 21-27 pounds; gains to pound per month; weight is three times original birth weight
  • respiration rate is typically 22-30 breaths per minute; varies with emotional state and activity
  • heart beat (pulse) is approximately 80-110 per minute
  • blood pressure is 96/64
  • rapid eruption of teeth; 6 to 10 new teeth will appear
  • body shape changes; takes on more adult-like appearance; still appears top heavy; abdomen protrudes, back is swayed.
  • visual acuity is approximately 20/60
  • immensely active
  • feet and arms apart
  • cannot turn corners easily
  • locking wrist control
  • toddler in transition
  • growth is rapid
  • starting to show independence
  • shows evidence of all four emotions
  • full head of hair
  • mobile- walks with a 'toddle'
  • anterior fontanel closing
  • body fat decreasing
  • hearing is acute

MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

  • crawls skillfully and carefully
  • walks unassisted near the end of this period; falls often, not always able to maneuver around obstacles
  • voluntarily releases an object
  • attempts to run; has difficulty stopping and usually drops to the floor
  • crawls up stairs on all fours; goes down stairs in same position
  • helps feed self; enjoys holding spoon and drinking form glass or cup, not always accurate at getting utensils into mouth
  • helps to turn pages in book
  • stacks 2 to 4 objects
  • stands briefly unaided
  • sits well for a long time
  • crawls or shuffles quickly
  • kneels upright, unsupported
  • walks easily
  • walks upstairs if hand is held
  • balance increases
  • easily tires and becomes frustrated
  • plays physical games
  • draws in circular motion
  • takes off simple clothes
  • beginning to give hints of future accomplishments
  • starting to pull self to erect position
  • beginning to grasp for a spoon, push blocks, and clutch crayons

PERCEPTUAL-COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • passes toy to other hand when offered a second toy, referred to as "crossing the midline"
  • manages 3 to 4 objects by setting an object aide, on lap or floor, when given new toy.
  • puts toys in mouth less often
  • enjoys looking at picture books
  • demonstrates understanding of functional relationships (objects that belong together)
  • shows or offers toy for another person to look at
  • names everyday objects
  • puts small items in a container and then dumps them out
  • gazes at moving people, animals and objects
  • recognizes known people approaching 20 ft away
  • begins to notice pictures
  • may favor use of one hand
  • uses pincer grasp to pick up small objects
  • points to intriguing objects in distance
  • very conscious of adults in his presence
  • gives evidence of all basic emotions
  • signs of beginning social independence
  • may show a fear of strangers
  • put smaller objects into bigger ones
  • drop and throw objects to watch their movements
  • explore and test their environment, as they learn about cause and effect

SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

  • holophrastic speech; one word conveys an entire thought, the meaning depends upon the inflection
  • follows simple directions, "Give daddy the cup."
  • when asked, will point to familiar persons, animals and toys
  • identifies 3 body parts if someone names them, "show me your nose..."
  • produces some 2 word phrases "more cookie"
  • speech is 25-50% intelligible
  • acquires and uses 5 to 50 words, usually words that refer to animals, food and toys
  • enjoys rhymes and songs; tries to join in
  • turns head when called by name
  • converses loudly in jargon
  • understands some words in context
  • pays attention when spoken to
  • tries singing
  • uses single words to communicate wants and needs
  • understands simple questions
  • learns about nine new words a day
  • speaks first intelligible word
  • listens attentively when adults talk to or around him
  • sensitive to parental moods
  • language growth in transition
  • vocabulary is large

PERSONAL-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

  • usually friendly towards others, becomes less wary of strangers
  • helps pick up and put away toys
  • plays alone for short periods
  • enjoys being held and read to
  • often imitates adult actions in play
  • enjoys the companionship of other children but does not play cooperatively
  • may have a tantrum when things go wrong or if overly tired or frustrated
  • uses cup almost unaided
  • holds but cannot use spoon
  • waves bye-bye
  • shows affection to know adults
  • drinks from cup
  • tries to open doors
  • understanding that others have needs and feeling
  • developing relationships with peers
  • hug or pat distressed person
  • beginning to show independence
  • still a bit unstable emotionally, likely to show distress and unhappiness

DEVELOPMENTAL ALERTS

Check with a health care provider or early childhood specialist, if by second birthday, the child does not:

  • creep or crawl
  • feed self; hold own bottle or cup, pick up and eat finger foods
  • interact playfully with parents, caregivers, siblings
  • imitate simple sounds
  • begin to cruise

The information provided should be used as a general guideline and for general information. Children are unique individuals. No two children grow and develop at the same rate. If you have any questions concerning your child's development, contact your pediatrician.

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