Child developmental Milestones Toddlers Two Years

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Developmental Milestones - Toddlers Two Years

GROWTH AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

  • weight gain averages 2-2.5 pounds per year, weighs approximately 26-32 pounds
  • grows approximately 3-5 inches per year, average height is 34-38 inches
  • body temperature continues to fluctuate with activity, emotional state and environment
  • brain reaches 80% of its adult size
  • eruption of teeth is nearly complete, second molars appear, a total of 20 deciduous (baby) teeth
  • gains control over bowels and bladder
  • walks with hunched shoulders, slightly bent knees and elbows
  • sleeps more than 12 hours
  • anything that can be climbed on or jumped from has an almost irresistible attraction
  • full head of hair
  • mobile; walks with a 'toddle'
  • anterior fontanel closing
  • body fat decreasing
  • hearing is acute

MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

  • runs with greater confidence, has fewer falls
  • climbs stairs unassisted, but not with alternating feet
  • often achieves toilet training during this year, the child will indicate readiness
  • enjoys pouring and filling activities
  • uses feet to propel wheeled riding toys
  • squats steadily and stands without using hands
  • aware of own size compared to objects around him
  • holding handrail or wall, walks up and down stairs, placing both feet on each step
  • small muscle control is more advanced
  • stacking a number of blocks
  • stringing wooden beads
  • can hold a small glass of juice with one hand
  • balance increases
  • easily tires and becomes frustrated
  • plays physical games
  • draws in circular motion
  • takes off simple clothes

PERCEPTUAL-COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

  • eye-hand movements are better coordinated, can put objects together and take them apart
  • begins to use objects for purposes other than intended
  • attends to self-selected activities for longer periods of time
  • recognizes and expresses pain and its location
  • turns picture book pages one at a time and recognizes tiny details
  • can unwrap a small candy
  • uses 6 cubes to build a tower
  • ability to recall events that happened earlier in the day
  • ability to anticipate events that will occur later in the day
  • put smaller objects into bigger ones
  • drop and throw objects to watch their movements
  • explore and test their environment, as they learn about cause and effect

SPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

  • realizes that language is effective for getting others to respond to needs and preferences
  • uses 50 to 300 words, vocabulary continuously increasing
  • refers to self as "me" or sometimes "I" rather than by name, has no trouble verbalizing "mine"
  • expresses negative statements by tacking on a negative word such as "no" or "not"
  • repeatedly asks "what's that?"
  • speech is 65-70% intelligible
  • shows interest in conversation between other people
  • can say short sentences
  • asks the names of various people and things
  • participates in songs and nursery rhymes
  • likes to hold and examine things he is beginning to name
  • active vocabulary of 300 words and a passive vocabulary of 1000 words
  • mastering words and grammatical forms at an enormous rate
  • words lack the specificity of meaning and separateness they have for adults
  • enjoy rhythmic pattern and musical qualities of language as much as they do its meaning
  • uses single words to communicate wants and needs
  • understands simple questions
  • learns about nine new words a day
  • speaks first intelligible word

PERSONAL-SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

  • shows signs of empathy and caring, comforts another child who is hurt or frightened, sometimes overly affectionate in offering hugs and kisses to children
  • temper tantrums likely to peak during this year, cannot be reasoned with while tantrum in progress
  • impatient, finds it difficult to wait or take turns
  • often defiant, shouting "no" becomes automatic
  • can put on shoes and hat
  • resists authority and throws tantrums if frustrated
  • possessive over toys
  • spoon feeds self and drinks from a cup
  • understanding that others have needs and feeling
  • developing relationships with peers
  • hug or pat distressed person
  • when he does something wrong, has a sheepish look on face
  • will object mother's help and insist on doing things on own

DEVELOPMENTAL ALERTS

Check with a health care provider or early childhood specialist, if by the third birthday, the child does not:

  • attempt to talk
  • understand new words
  • walk alone
  • show interest in pictures
  • recognize self in mirror
  • attempt to self feed

The information provided should be used as a general guideline and for general information. Children are unique individuals. No two children grow and develop at the same rate. If you have any questions concerning your child's development, contact your pediatrician.

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